The Exodus s the story of the enslavement of the Israelites in Egypt following the death of Joseph, their departure under the leadership of Moses, the revelations at Sinai, and their wanderings in the wilderness up to the borders of Canaan. Significant portions of the story told in the books of Exodus,Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy are not and were never intended to be historiographic, but the overall intent was historical according to the understanding of the ancient writers: to demonstrate God’s actions in history, to recall Israel’s bondage and salvation, and to demonstrate the fulfillment of Israel’s covenant.
The Book of Exodus tells how Moses leads the Israelites out of Egypt and through the wilderness to Mount Sinai, where God reveals himself and offers them a Covenant: they are to keep his torah (i.e. law, instruction), and in return he will be their god and give them the land of Canaan. The Book of Leviticus records the laws of God. The Book of Numbers tells how the Israelites, led now by their God, journey onwards from Sinai towards Canaan, but when their spies report that the land is filled with giants they refuse to go on. God then condemns them to remain in the desert until the generation that left Egypt passes away. After thirty-eight years at the oasis of Kadesh Barnea the next generation travel on to the borders of Canaan. The Book of Deuteronomy tells how, within sight of the Promised Land, Moses recalls their journeys and gives them new laws. His death (the last reported event of the Torah) concludes the 40 years of the exodus from Egypt.
- First Plague: Water Turns to Blood (Exodus 7:14-25)
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hardened; he refuses to let the people go. Go to Pharaoh in the morning, as he is going out to the water. Stand on the bank of the Nile to meet him, and take in your hand the staff that turned into a serpent. And you shall say to him, ‘The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, sent me to you, saying, “Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness. But so far, you have not obeyed.” Thus says the LORD, “By this you shall know that I am the LORD: behold, with the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water that is in the Nile, and it shall turn into blood. The fish in the Nile shall die, and the Nile will stink, and the Egyptians will grow weary of drinking water from the Nile.”‘” And the LORD said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and stretch out your hand over the waters of Egypt, over their rivers, their canals, and their ponds, and all their pools of water, so that they may become blood, and there shall be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, even in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone.’” Moses and Aaron did as the LORD commanded. In the sight of Pharaoh and in the sight of his servants he lifted up the staff and struck the water in the Nile, and all the water in the Nile turned into blood. And the fish in the Nile died, and the Nile stank, so that the Egyptians could not drink water from the Nile. There was blood throughout all the land of Egypt. But the magicians of Egypt did the same by their secret arts. So Pharaoh’s heart remained hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the LORD had said. Pharaoh turned and went into his house, and he did not take even this to heart. And all the Egyptians dug along the Nile for water to drink, for they could not drink the water of the Nile. Seven full days passed after the LORD had struck the Nile.
- Second Plague: Frogs (Exodus 8:1-15)
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Go in to Pharaoh and say to him, ‘Thus says the LORD,
“Let my people go, that they may serve me. But if you refuse to let them go, behold, I will plague all your country with frogs. The Nile shall swarm with frogs that shall come up into your house and into your bedroom and on your bed and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens and your kneading bowls. The frogs shall come up on you and on your people and on all your servants.”‘” And the LORD said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Stretch out your hand with your staff over the rivers, over the canals and over the pools, and make frogs come up on the land of Egypt!’” So Aaron stretched out his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt. But the magicians did the same by their secret arts and made frogs come up on the land of Egypt. Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron and said, “Plead with the LORD to take away the frogs from me and from my people, and I will let the people go to sacrifice to the LORD.” Moses said to Pharaoh, “Be pleased to command me when I am to plead for you and for your servants and for your people, that the frogs be cut off from you and your houses and be left only in the Nile.” And he said, “Tomorrow.” Moses said, “Be it as you say, so that you may know that there is no one like the LORD our God. The frogs shall go away from you and your houses and your servants and your people. They shall be left only in the Nile.” So Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh, and Moses cried to the LORD about the frogs, as he had agreed with Pharaoh. And the LORD did according to the word of Moses. The frogs died out in the houses, the courtyards, and the fields. And they gathered them together in heaps, and the land 7stank. But when Pharaoh saw that there was a respite, he hardened his heart and would not listen to them, as the LORD had said.
- Third Plague: Lice (Exodus 8:16-19 )
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Tell Aaron to raise his stick and hit the dust on the ground, and everywhere in Egypt dust will become lice.” They did this. Aaron raised the stick in his hand and hit the dust on the ground, and everywhere in Egypt the dust became lice. The lice got on the animals and the people. The magicians used their magic and tried to do the same thing. But the magicians could not make lice come from the dust. The lice remained on the animals and the people. So the magicians told Pharaoh that the power of God did this. But Pharaoh refused to listen to them. This happened just as the LORD had said.
- Fourth Plague: Swarms (Exodus 20-32)
The LORD said to Moses, “Get up in the morning and go to Pharaoh. He will go out to the river. Tell him that the LORD says, ‘Let my people go and worship me! If you don’t let my people go, then flies will come into your houses. The flies will be on you and your officials. The houses of Egypt will be full of flies. They will be all over the ground too! But I will not treat the Israelites the same as the Egyptians. There will not be any flies in Goshen, where my people live. In this way you will know that I, the LORD, am in this land. So tomorrow I will treat my people differently from your people. This will be my proof.’” So the LORD did just what he said. Millions of flies came into Egypt. The flies were in Pharaoh’s house, and they were in all his officials’ houses. They were all over Egypt. The flies were ruining the country. So Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron and told them, “Offer sacrifices to your God here in this country.” But Moses said, “It would not be right to do that. The Egyptians think it is terrible to kill animals as sacrifices for the LORD our God. If we do this here, the Egyptians will see us and throw stones at us and kill us. Let us go three days into the desert and offer sacrifices to the LORD our God. This is what he told us to do.” So Pharaoh said, “I will let you go and offer sacrifices to the LORD your God in the desert, but you must not go very far. Now, go and pray for me.” Moses said, “Look, I will leave and ask the LORD to remove the flies from you, your people, and your officials tomorrow. But you must not stop the people from offering sacrifices to the LORD.” So Moses left Pharaoh and prayed to the LORD. And the LORD did what Moses asked. He removed the flies from Pharaoh, his officials, and his people. None of the flies remained. But Pharaoh again became stubborn and did not let the people go.
- Fifth Plague: Livestock Diseased (Exodus 9:1-7)
Then the LORD told Moses to go to Pharaoh and tell him: “The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says, ‘Let my people go to worship me!’ If you continue to hold them and refuse to let them go, then the LORD will use his power against your animals in the fields. He will cause all of your horses, donkeys, camels, cattle, and sheep to get sick with a terrible disease. But the LORD will treat Israel’s animals differently from the animals of Egypt. None of the animals that belong to the Israelites will die. The LORD has set the time for this to happen. He said, ‘Tomorrow the LORD will make this happen in this country.’” The next morning the LORD did what he said. All the farm animals of the Egyptians died, but none of the animals that belonged to the Israelites died. Pharaoh sent people to see if any of the animals of Israel died. Not one of them died. But Pharaoh remained stubborn and did not let the people go.
- Sixth Plague: Boils (Exodus 9:8-12)
The LORD said to Moses and Aaron, “Fill your hands with the ashes from a furnace. Moses, you throw the ashes into the air in front of Pharaoh. This will become dust that will go throughout the land of Egypt. Whenever the dust touches a person or an animal in Egypt, sores will break out on the skin.” So Moses and Aaron took ashes from a furnace and went and stood before Pharaoh. Moses threw the ashes into the air, and sores began breaking out on people and animals. The magicians could not stop Moses from doing this, because even the magicians had the sores. This happened everywhere in Egypt. But the LORD made Pharaoh stubborn, so he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron, just as the LORD had said.
- Seventh Plague: Hail (Exodus 9:13-15)
Then the LORD said to Moses, “Get up in the morning and go to Pharaoh. Tell him that the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says, ‘Let my people go to worship me! This time, I will use my full power against you, your officials, and your people. Then you will know that there is no god in the world like me. I could use my power and cause a disease that would wipe you and your people off the earth.
- Eighth Plague: Locusts (Exodus 10:1-20)
The LORD said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh. I have made him and his officials stubborn. I did this so that I could show them my powerful miracles. I also did this so that you could tell your children and your grandchildren about the miracles and other wonderful things that I have done in Egypt. Then all of you will know that I am the LORD.” So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh. They told him, “The LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says, ‘How long will you refuse to obey me? Let my people go to worship me! If you refuse to let my people go, then tomorrow I will bring locusts into your country. The locusts will cover the land. There will be so many locusts that you will not be able to see the ground. Anything that was left from the hailstorm will be eaten by the locusts. The locusts will eat all the leaves from every tree in the field. They will fill all your houses, and all your officials’ houses, and all the houses in Egypt. There will be more locusts than your fathers or your grandfathers have ever seen. There will be more locusts than there have ever been since people began living in Egypt.’” Then Moses turned and left Pharaoh. Then the officials asked Pharaoh, “How long will we be trapped by these people? Let the men go to worship the LORD their God. If you don’t let them go, before you know it, Egypt will be destroyed!” So Pharaoh told his officials to bring Moses and Aaron back to him. Pharaoh said to them, “Go and worship the LORD your God. But tell me, just who is going?” Moses answered, “All of our people, young and old, will go. And we will take our sons and daughters, and our sheep and cattle with us. We will all go because the LORD’S festival is for all of us.” Pharaoh said to them, “The LORD really will have to be with you before I let you and all of your children leave Egypt. Look, you are planning something evil. The men can go worship the LORD. That is what you asked for in the beginning. But all of your people cannot go.” Then Pharaoh sent Moses and Aaron away. The LORD told Moses, “Raise your hand over the land of Egypt and the locusts will come! They will spread all over the land of Egypt and will eat all the plants that the hail did not destroy.” So Moses raised his walking stick over the land of Egypt, and the LORD caused a strong wind to blow from the east. The wind blew all that day and night. When morning came, the wind had brought the locusts to the land of Egypt. The locusts flew into the country of Egypt and landed on the ground. There were more locusts than there had ever been in Egypt. And there will never again be that many locusts there. They covered the ground, and the whole country became dark. The locusts ate every plant on the ground and all the fruit in the trees that the hail had not destroyed. There were no leaves left on any of the trees or plants anywhere in Egypt. Pharaoh quickly called for Moses and Aaron. Pharaoh said, “I have sinned against the LORD your God and against you. Now, forgive me for my sins this time. Ask the LORD to remove this ‘death’ from me.” Moses left Pharaoh and prayed to the LORD. So the LORD changed the wind. He made a very strong wind blow from the west, and it blew the locusts out of Egypt and into the Red Sea. Not one locust was left in Egypt! But the LORD caused Pharaoh to be stubborn again, and Pharaoh did not let the Israelites go.
- Ninth Plague: Darkness (Exodus 10:21-29)
Then the LORD told Moses, “Raise your hand into the air and darkness will cover Egypt. It will be so dark you can feel it!” So Moses raised his hand into the air and a cloud of darkness covered Egypt. The darkness stayed in Egypt for three days. None of the people could see each other, and no one got up to go any place for three days. But there was light in all the places where the Israelites lived. Again Pharaoh called for Moses. He said, “Go and worship the LORD! You can take your children with you. But you must leave your sheep and cattle here.” Moses said, “No, we will take them all. In fact, you will give us offerings and sacrifices for us to use in worshiping the LORD our God. Yes, we will take our animals with us to worship the LORD our God. Not one hoof will be left behind. We don’t know yet exactly what we will need to worship the LORD. We will learn that only when we get there.” The LORD made Pharaoh stubborn again, so he refused to let them go. Then Pharaoh told Moses, “Get out of here. I don’t want you to come here again. The next time you come to see me, you will die!” Then Moses told Pharaoh, “You are right about one thing. I will not come to see you again.”
- Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn (Exodus 11:1-12:30)
Then the LORD told Moses, “I have one more disaster to bring against Pharaoh and Egypt. After this, he will ask you to leave Egypt. In fact, he will force you to leave this country. You must give this message to the Israelites: ‘Men and women, you must ask your neighbors to give you things made of silver and gold.’” The LORD caused the Egyptians to be kind to the Israelites. The Egyptians, even Pharaoh’s own officials, already considered Moses to be a great man. Moses said to the king, “The LORD says, ‘At midnight tonight, I will go through Egypt, and every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, the ruler of Egypt, to the firstborn son of the slave girl grinding grain. Even the firstborn animals will die. The crying in Egypt will be worse than at any time in the past or any time in the future. But none of the Israelites or their animals will be hurt–not even a dog will bark at them.’ Then you will know that the LORD has treated Israel differently from Egypt. All these officials of yours will come down and bow to me. They will say, ‘Leave and take all your people with you.’ Only then will I leave!” Then in anger, Moses left the meeting with Pharaoh. Then the LORD told Moses, “The reason Pharaoh did not listen to you is so that I could show my great power in Egypt.” That is why Moses and Aaron did all these great miracles in front of Pharaoh. And that is why the LORD made Pharaoh so stubborn that he would not let the Israelites leave his country. While Moses and Aaron were still in Egypt, the LORD spoke to them. He said, “This month will be the first month of the year for you. This command is for the whole community of Israel: On the tenth day of this month each man must get one lamb for the people in his house. If there are not enough people in his house to eat a whole lamb, then he should invite some of his neighbors to share the meal. There must be enough lamb for everyone to eat. The lamb must be a one-year-old male, and it must be completely healthy. This animal can be either a young sheep or a young goat. You should watch over the animal until the 14th day of the month. On that day all the people of the community of Israel must kill these animals just before dark. You must collect the blood from these animals and put it on the top and sides of the doorframe of every house where the people eat this meal. “On this night you must roast the lamb and eat all the meat. You must also eat bitter herbs and bread made without yeast. You must not eat the lamb raw or boiled in water. You must roast the whole lamb over a fire. The lamb must still have its head, legs, and inner parts. You must eat all the meat that night. If any of the meat is left until morning, you must burn it in the fire. “When you eat the meal, you must be fully dressed and ready to travel. You must have your sandals on your feet and your walking stick in your hand. You must eat in a hurry, because this is the LORD’S Passover. “Tonight I will go through Egypt and kill every firstborn man and animal in Egypt. In this way I will judge all the gods of Egypt and show that I am the LORD. But the blood on your houses will be a special sign. When I see the blood, I will pass over your house. I will cause bad things to happen to the people of Egypt. But none of these bad diseases will hurt you. “You will always remember tonight–it will be a special festival for you. Your descendants will honor the LORD with this festival forever. For this festival you will eat bread made without yeast for seven days. On the first day, you will remove all the yeast from your houses. No one should eat any yeast for the full seven days of this festival. Anyone who eats yeast must be separated from the rest of Israel. There will be holy assemblies on the first day and the last day of the festival. You must not do any work on these days. The only work you can do is preparing the food for your meals. You must remember the Festival of Unleavened Bread, because on this day I took all of your people out of Egypt in groups. All of your descendants must remember this day. This is a law that will last forever. So on the evening of the 14th day of the first month, you will begin eating bread without yeast. You will eat this bread until the evening of the 21st day of the same month. For seven days, there must not be any yeast in your houses. Anyone, either a citizen of Israel or a foreigner living among you, who eats yeast at this time must be separated from the rest of Israel. During this festival you must not eat any yeast. You must eat bread without yeast wherever you live.” So Moses called all the elders together and told them, “Get the lambs for your families. Kill the lambs for the Passover. Take bunches of hyssop and dip them in the bowls filled with blood. Paint the blood on the sides and top of each doorframe. No one must leave their house until morning. At the time the LORD goes through Egypt to kill the firstborn, he will see the blood on the sides and top of each doorframe. Then he will protect that house and not let the Destroyer come into any of your houses and hurt you. You must remember this command. This law is for you and your descendants forever. You must remember to do this even when you go to the land the LORD is giving you. When your children ask you, ‘Why are we doing this ceremony?’ you will say, ‘This Passover is to honor the LORD, because when we were in Egypt, he passed over the houses of Israel. He killed the Egyptians, but he saved the people in our houses.’” Then the people bowed down and worshiped the Lord. The LORD had given this command to Moses and Aaron, so the Israelites did what the Lord commanded. At midnight the LORD killed all the firstborn sons in Egypt, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh (who ruled Egypt) to the firstborn son of the prisoner sitting in jail. Also all the firstborn animals died. That night someone died in every house in Egypt. Pharaoh, his officials, and all the people of Egypt began to cry loudly.
After leaving Egypt during the Exodus The Ten Commandments were witten on stone tablets by the very hand of God Himself.
Check Missler wrote, “There have been few dramas that can equal the cosmic warfare that took place against the gods of Egypt when God used Moses to free Israel from their bondage.We all are familiar with the death of the firstborn that finally caused Pharaoh to release them. Yet few of us, probably, are aware of the significance lying behind the other nine plagues: a cosmic war against the demons of darkness.